Article 1: Low Density Residential District (R-1)
Type of District: Traditional
Table of Contents
Section 6-1.01: Purpose
The regulations of the R-1 District are intended to encourage a suitable environment for a variety of suburban residential densities and compatible supportive recreational, institutional and educational uses. The intent of this District is to protect residential areas from the encroachment of uses that are not appropriate to a residential environment and to permit residential and institutional uses not well suited for an Agricultural District.
It is the intent of this District that any development with over ten (10) dwelling units must be processed as a Planned Unit Development. The more detailed process of design review for such developments will help maintain the rural character and minimize the impacts of large developments in a rural setting.
Section 6-1.02: Uses
|Table of Uses||R-1|
|State licensed residential family facilities provided the facility shall not be within 1,500 feet of another State licensed residential facility.||Permitted Use|
|State licensed residential group facilities provided the facility shall not be within 1,500 feet of another State licensed residential facility||Special Land Use|
|Any residential development of over ten (10) dwelling units||Planned Unit Development|
|Single-family detached dwelling||Permitted|
|Two-family dwelling||Special Land Use|
|Bed and breakfast home or inn||Special Land Use|
|Hospice Residence||Special Land Use|
|Nursing or convalescent home||Special Land Use|
|Place of religious worship||Special Land Use|
|Libraries, museums, community centers, governmental, administration, or service buildings and similar uses which are owned and operated by a governmental agency or a noncommercial organization||Special Land Use|
|Schools, elementary, middle and high school (public and private)||Public schools – Permitted Private schools - Special Land Use|
|Campgrounds, public or private||Special Land Use|
|Cemeteries||Special Land Use|
|Accessory buildings and uses as allowed in Chapter 3||Permitted|
|Golf course or country club||Special Land Use|
|Municipal and public service activities||Special Land Use|
|Utility substation, transmission line and switching station||Special Land Use|
|Wireless communications antenna when attached to a lawful existing telecommunications tower, water tower, or other structure||Permitted|
|Wireless communication tower of under 75 feet in height||Permitted|
Section 6-1.03: Development Requirements
Lot, Yard and Building Requirements
Requirement R-1 Minimum lot area* 1 acre Maximum lot area 2 acres Minimum lot width 200 ft. Maximum width to depth ratio 1:4 Minimum front yard** 50 ft. Minimum rear yard 40 ft. Minimum side yards*** 15 ft. Maximum lot coverage 20% Maximum bldg. height 35 ft. Minimum floor area per dwelling unit 600 sq. ft.
* Open space cluster developments may reduce the lot size to ¾ of an acre.
** Front yard setback in all residential districts shall be seventy-five (75) feet on those roads designated as County Primary routes.
** Streetside setback for lake frontage lots shall be the same.
** Lots platted prior to 1985 may have a front setback of twenty-five 25 feet after Zoning Administrator review.
** Note additional front setbacks of Access Management Overlay District. Parcels fronting on M-82 are subject to additional setbacks and the access management provisions.
*** Zero lot line provisions may be used for main buildings provided:
- It is part of a development proposal (i.e., a planned unit development or cluster development, not a single-lot development) and approved by the Joint Planning Commission.
- The building has an approved fire rating for zero lot line development under the building code.
- The building has adequate fire access preserved pursuant to fire code requirements.
- The zero lot line side is not adjacent to a street.
- A maintenance access easement among properties is approved by the Zoning Administrator and recorded with the County Register of Deeds.
Any side or rear yard of any parcel used for non-farming use and abutting land in an Agricultural District shall be a minimum of fifty (50) feet and shall contain an agricultural buffer. In lieu of a natural open space area, fencing, densely planted vegetation or other similar barrier compliant with Chapter 3 “General Provisions” may be used to reduce the agricultural buffer, but the buffer shall not be less than twenty-five 25 feet in width.
Waterfront and Wetland Setback
- A one hundred (100) foot waterfront setback shall be required for septic systems on lots adjacent to a lake, river, creek or stream. Such setback shall be measured from the ordinary high water mark of the body of water to the nearest point of the structure.
- Within this waterfront setback, a minimum twenty-five (25) foot natural vegetative buffer shall be maintained parallel and immediately adjacent to the bank or ordinary high water level. Within the greenbelt, the Zoning Administrator may approve clearing of a space of no greater than ten (10) feet in width, selectively trimmed and pruned to allow for the placement of walkways, and/or for a view of the waterway. The walkway shall be perpendicular to the water. Individual trees may also be removed which are in danger of falling and damaging structures or blocking a navigable waterway.
- Grading or removal of vegetative cover shall not be permitted within twenty-five (25) feet of a wetland.
Location of parking and parking area requirements
- Required off-street parking facilities shall be located on the same lot as the building they are intended to serve. In the R-1 District parking is limited to the garage and driveway only.
- See also Chapter 3 for general parking requirements.
- The amount of required off-street parking spaces for individual uses shall be determined in accordance with the following table and shall meet the applicable requirements of Chapter 3 for lighting, loading spaces and landscaping.
Use Parking Requirement Residential State licensed residential care facilities 1 per each 3 individuals computed on the basis of the licensing limits of the facility. Single-family detached and two family dwellings 2 per dwelling unit Bed and breakfast home or inn 2 plus 1 per guest room Non-Residential Campgrounds, public or private 1 – 10’ x 30’ space for every campsite Cemeteries 2 spaces plus 1 space for each 400 sq. ft. of UFA for office spaces, plus that required for a caretaker’s residence Institutional Uses Nursing or convalescent home 1 per each 3 beds or 2 rooms, plus 10 spaces marked for visitors Place of religious worship 1 for each three (3) seats in the main worship unit Libraries, museums, community centers and similar uses which are owned and operated by a governmental agency or a noncommercial organization. 1 per every two people based on capacity Schools Elementary and Junior High, one space per employee plus 5 spaces for visitors. High schools, 1 space per 10 students or the amount required for the auditorium or place of assembly, whichever is greater; separate areas for student drop off and pickup areas for buses must be provided. Accessory Uses Golf course or country club 2 per each hole for a par 3 course; 6 per hole for other courses Roadside stands 1 space Municipal and public service activities 1 space for each service vehicle Utility substation, transmission line and switching station 1 space for each service vehicle Wireless communications antenna when attached to a lawful existing telecommunications tower, water tower or other structure 1 space per service vehicle
- The following signs are permitted in all residential districts:
- Entranceway monument signs up to sixteen (16) square feet are permitted for residential developments. One sign for each major public road frontage may be provided. Signs shall not exceed eight (8) feet in height.
- Internally illuminated monument signs of up to twenty-four (24) square feet for lawful institutional uses such as churches, schools, parks and all other authorized uses. Signs shall not exceed eight (8) feet in height. One (1) non-illuminated wall sign of up to twenty-four (24) square feet may also be permitted.
- One (1) sign of up to eight (8) square feet for a bed and breakfast or roadside stand.
- One wall (1) sign up to two (2) square feet for a home occupation.
- Political campaign signs of up to six (6) square feet.
- Non-illuminated real estate signs, of up to six (6) square feet provided they are removed within 10 days after consummation of lease or sale of property.
- Non-illuminated trespassing, safety, directional, caution or announcement signs each not exceeding two (2) square feet in area or signs announcing the sale of produce each not exceeding six (6) square feet in area.
- Name plates of under two (2) square feet.
- Road name signs and signs established by state, county or township units of government when necessary for giving proper directions or otherwise safeguarding the public.
- Non-advertising signs erected by an organization, firm or corporation that are needed to warn the public of dangerous conditions and unusual hazards including: caving ground, drop-offs, high voltage, fire danger, explosives, severe visibility limits, etc., of under two (2) square feet.
- Signs shall be set back from the road right-of-way and from side property lines a minimum of ten (10) feet.
- Sign design shall respect the rural character of the district. As examples, sign colors should be natural and subdued and sign materials should be natural looking (e.g., wood and field stone vs. glossy metals and plastics).
- See Chapter 3 “General Provisions” for prohibited signs.
- The following signs are permitted in all residential districts: